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    Audio/Video Tutorial Basics [Things you should know]

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    iyenboy

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    Audio/Video Tutorial Basics [Things you should know]

    Post  iyenboy on Fri Apr 09, 2010 10:01 pm

    Well I've thought of teaching you guys on how to encode your audio and video files to lesser size without having any significant quality loss,

    this is and basic things to know before you encode guide...
    I've mainly focused on how to get good quality at really low bitrates...
    if you are a real encoder...don't get pissed to some info I've written...

    but A/C to me first things first...you should know all of these things before you start encoding....

    Audio:
    mp3 is the worst format for encoding....
    shocked...why mp3 is soo much widely used....thats because it can be played by most portable players....

    the best quality audio with low bitrates is given by AAC [Advanced Audio Coding] followed by ogg and then mp3

    Lossless quality:
    WAV : 1440 kbps i.e. CD quality...each song more than 30~35 MB
    MP3 : 270 [V0] ~ 320 kbps
    OGG : around 160 kbps
    AAC : I don't know....its sounds great at low bitrates...
    AAC sounds better that mp3 at any particular bitrate.

    at 64 kbps OGG and AAC sound nearly the same, mp3 is is bad.
    at 48 kbps OGG is bad, AAC still sounds great , mp3 is hopeless.
    at 32 kbps except AAC all are hopeless
    less that 32 still AAC sounds decent....but we don't need to go that low on bitrate.


    so what I use is:
    48 kbps Nero AAC for general anime and movie encoding [Sterio i.e. 2ch]
    32 kbps Nero AAC only when sound is mono i.e. both speakers have the same sound.

    in sterio I use 48 kbps so it goes 48/2=24 kbps per speaker

    for 5.1 ch surround....i.e. a total of 6 ch...we need 24x6=144 kbps bitrate
    for 7.1 ch surround....i.e. a total of 8 ch...we need 24x8=192 kbps bitrate

    these are the minimum bitrates that shall give you good quality sound even at low bitrates....anything lower than this will make all the fun go.....



    Video:
    well there are two thing you should know...

    1. Format
    2. Container

    1 :
    Format is a general term...i.e. in which format you convert a file...
    some popular formats:
    DivX
    XviD
    H.264 or x264 [I use] [Advanced Video Coding]
    Real Media or Real Video
    MPEG [uncompressed which is used in DVDs and CDs and BlueRay movies]
    he's a fool who tries to convert things to MPEG because MPEG is not meant for compression....so you can't get good quality and low bitrates.

    DVD bitrate is 8000 kbps [MPEG]

    for 700 mb movies...people generally use XviD or DivX at 800~1000 bitrate.

    for 400 mb movies people use h.264 at 350~400 kbps bitrate.

    real media is not very very much nowdays....as h.264 give very good quality at low bitrates, but we all know how real media had a monopoly some while ago...

    Well I am going to teach encoding for x264 format...

    Animes need less bitrate than real life video.

    2 :
    Container is just like a box in which the video file is kept.

    like when you convert any file to divx you get and extension as .divx but .avi shows and avi is the container

    mkv is the best container available followed by mp4



    Make one thing clear, whenever we encode....something we surely loose quality...
    its a fact that the loss is nigligble is the encoding is done properly.....but there is no way you can reproduce the same quality file via encoding untill you select the lossless format....but lossless takes tooooo....much bitrate....



    Bitrate:
    kbps i.e. kilobits per second
    i.e. number of kilo bits taken by the file if the file plays for one second.

    1 byte = 8 bits

    therefore, 48 kbps = 6 kBps [notice the b after k]

    so if a file has bitrate 48 kbps and plays for 1 munute, space taken is calculated:
    48 kbps => 48/8=6 kBps i.e. kilo bytes per second
    1 min = 60 seconds
    therefore space required = 6*60=360 kilo bytes on your hard disk.



    see bitrate is like sugar in a lemonade....
    there is a minimum amount of bitrate which is mandantory for decent quality encode,

    is you put less sugar, you don't like the drink....
    there is a limit of sugar which you can put in one glass of drink....i.e. you shouldn't give very large bitrates when its no need....as it'll do no good....in fact it'll just make a larger file on your hard disk.


    now giving bitrate to a file depends on the resolution of the video.
    the larger the resolution....the more the bitrate you'll need for encoding the video.

    thr bitrate and the resolution go directly proportional.

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